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How Do Dogs Communicate With Each Other? Interpreting Dog Language - PawSafe

How Do Dogs Communicate With Each Other? Interpreting Dog Language

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Written by Nick

dogs communicating

Dogs have their unique ways of communicating with each other that go far beyond barking. By understanding how they interact, you can better connect with your pet and interpret their behavior. Just like humans, dogs use a combination of sound, body language, and scent to convey messages to one another and to us.

So, How Do Dogs Communicate With Each Other?

  • Body Language: Tail wagging, ear positioning, and various postures.
  • Vocalizations: Growls, barks, whines, and howls.
  • Scent: Marking territory and conveying information through pheromones.

The Language of Dogs

Dogs have an intricate system of communication that includes vocalizations, body movements, facial expressions, and tail positions. These methods allow them to convey their feelings and intentions effectively.


When dogs vocalize, they might be expressing anything from excitement to distress. Here are some common types of vocalizations and what they typically mean:

A snarling dog bares its teeth, growling aggressively


Alert Barking: This type of barking is meant to alert you to something unusual or suspicious. The tone is typically sharp and quick, often repetitive. For example, when a stranger approaches the door, your dog might let out a series of rapid barks to get your attention and alert you to the potential threat.

Attention-Seeking Barking: Dogs often bark to get your attention or express their needs. This bark is usually higher-pitched and might come with body language cues like jumping or pawing. If your dog wants to go outside or is hungry, you might hear this type of bark.

Play Barking: When dogs are excited and playful, they often bark in a more high-pitched and intermittent manner. This is commonly seen during playtime with other dogs or with their owners. The bark is usually accompanied by playful body language like wagging tails and play bows.

Warning Barking: A deeper, more prolonged bark can signal a warning. This type of barking is often used to deter perceived threats and is typically serious and deliberate. If your dog feels threatened by an intruder or another animal, you might hear this kind of bark.


Pack Gathering: Howling is a natural instinct for dogs, especially those with a strong pack mentality. In the wild, wolves use howling to bring the pack together, and domestic dogs might howl in response to certain sounds or to express loneliness and a need for companionship.

Expression of Loneliness: Dogs left alone for extended periods may howl as a way to express their loneliness and seek attention. This type of howling is often long and drawn-out, signaling a need for social interaction.


Fearful Growling: A growl can indicate that a dog feels threatened or scared. This type of growl is usually low-pitched and may be accompanied by body language such as backing away, raised hackles, and a lowered body posture.

Aggressive Growling: When a dog feels cornered or is protecting its territory, it may growl aggressively. This growl is typically deep and continuous, signaling that the dog is prepared to defend itself if necessary.


Submissive Whining: Whining is often a sign of submission, worry, or a desire for something, such as food or affection. When a dog whines, it might be trying to communicate its need for reassurance or its eagerness to please.

Anxiety-Related Whining: Dogs may also whine when they are anxious or stressed. This type of whining is usually high-pitched and persistent, often accompanied by other signs of anxiety like pacing, panting, or trembling.

According to a study published in Applied Animal Behaviour Science by Matheus Marques et al. (2020), humans are quite adept at distinguishing between different types of dog barks. The study found that people could accurately identify whether a bark indicated aggression, playfulness, or a call for attention. This underscores the importance of paying close attention to the nuances in dog vocalizations to better understand their communication.

Body Language

Body language is a powerful part of how dogs communicate. Observing these cues can tell you a lot about a dog’s feelings and intentions.

Relaxed Posture:

Happy and Content: A relaxed posture with a wagging tail and relaxed body movements suggests your dog is happy and content. The dog’s ears may be in a natural position, and the eyes will appear soft and calm. A relaxed dog might also lie down with its legs stretched out or roll onto its back, showing trust.

Playful and Engaged: When a dog is playful, it often exhibits a posture known as the “play bow,” where the front legs are extended, and the rear end is up. This is an invitation to play and indicates that the dog is in a friendly, non-threatening mood.

Stiff Body:

Aroused or Aggressive: A stiff body can be a warning signal that your dog is aroused or potentially aggressive. This posture is often accompanied by other signs such as a high, stiff tail, raised hackles, and a focused stare. The dog’s ears may be erect and pointing forward, indicating alertness.

On Guard: When a dog is on guard, its body will be tense, and it may stand tall with its weight shifted forward. This posture signals that the dog is ready to take action if necessary.

Physical Contact:

Trust and Affection: Dogs express trust and affection through physical contact, such as nuzzling or leaning against you. When a dog leans into you or rests its head on your lap, it’s showing that it feels safe and comfortable in your presence.

Calming Signals:

Non-Threatening Intentions: Dogs use signals like averting their gaze, licking their lips, or yawning to diffuse tension and indicate that they mean no threat. These calming signals are essential for maintaining social harmony and preventing conflicts. Observing these subtleties can tell you a lot about what your dog is feeling and help you respond appropriately.

Facial Expressions

Your dog’s face can convey a wide range of emotional states. Recognizing these expressions can help you understand their feelings and respond appropriately.

A happy dog with a wide, toothy grin, tongue hanging out, and eyes bright with joy

Whale Eye:

Anxiety or Stress: Whale eye, where the whites of the eyes are visible, can indicate anxiety or stress. This expression often occurs when a dog is uncomfortable or feels threatened. The dog’s body may be tense, and it might try to avoid direct eye contact.

Relaxed Mouth:

Contentment: A relaxed, slightly open mouth might mean your dog is content. The dog’s lips will be soft, and the tongue may be visible. This expression is often seen when a dog is resting or enjoying a calm moment.

Focus or Anxiety: A closed mouth may suggest the dog is focused or slightly anxious. The lips may be tightly pressed together, and the dog’s overall posture may be more tense.


Happiness: Dogs also smile in a relaxed manner when they’re happy. This expression involves a slightly open mouth with relaxed lips and visible teeth. It’s a sign that the dog is comfortable and enjoying the moment.

Aggression: A drawn-back lip can signal aggression. When a dog bares its teeth, it is often a warning sign that it feels threatened and is ready to defend itself. The dog’s body may be stiff, and the ears may be pinned back.


Stress or Calming: Yawning might be a sign of stress or an attempt to calm a situation. Dogs often yawn when they are in unfamiliar or tense situations, using this behavior to self-soothe and communicate that they are not a threat.

Tail Positions

The position and movement of your dog’s tail can tell you a lot about their emotional state and intentions.

A dog stands with a high, stiff tail, ears alert, and a focused gaze

High, Stiff Tail:

• Alertness or Aggression: A high, stiff tail often denotes alertness or aggression. When a dog holds its tail high and rigid, it is signaling that it is on high alert and ready to react. This posture is often seen when a dog is guarding its territory or encountering a potential threat.

Low Tail:

Fear or Submission: A low tail can indicate fear or submission. When a dog tucks its tail between its legs, it is showing that it feels threatened or submissive. This posture is often accompanied by other signs of fear, such as a lowered body and avoiding eye contact.

Wagging Tail:

Contentment or Happiness: A relaxed, wagging tail usually means a dog is content or happy. The tail will move in a loose, sweeping motion, and the dog’s overall body language will be relaxed and friendly.

Excitement or Anxiety: Rapid tail wagging with other signals, like a stiff body or pinned ears, can express excitement or anxiety. In these cases, it’s important to observe the dog’s overall behavior and context to understand its true feelings.


Arousal or Agitation: Piloerection, or raised fur on the back toward the tail, can be a sign of arousal or agitation. This response is often triggered by excitement, fear, or aggression, and it signals that the dog is experiencing heightened emotions.

Scent Markings as Communication Tools

Dogs use scent to convey a wealth of information to each other. This method of communication is crucial for marking territory, identifying individuals, and conveying reproductive status.

A dog's nose sniffs a patch of grass, its scent glands releasing pheromones

Urine Marking:

Territory and Identity: When you see a dog pee during a walk, they’re doing more than just relieving themselves. Urine marking is a dog’s way of leaving a calling card. Urine contains pheromones, which are chemical messengers that provide information about the dog’s age, sex, health, and reproductive status. Dogs have powerful olfactory receptors, allowing them to pick up even the faintest scent notes left in urine. This way, they can learn a lot about other dogs without even meeting them.

Fecal Marking:

Presence and Details: Although not as commonly discussed, fecal marking is another method your dog might use to communicate. Similar to urine marking, feces can carry scents that give away important information. It’s common for dogs to defecate in specific places to indicate their presence to others. Scent from anal glands, mixed in with the feces, adds extra details to the message, ensuring other canines know who’s been there.

Scent Glands:

Anal Glands: Dogs are equipped with several scent glands on their bodies. The most well-known ones are the anal glands, which release unique scents every time a dog poops. These scents can convey a range of information and play a significant role in olfactory communication between dogs.

Paw Pads: Additionally, there are scent glands on their paw pads. When dogs scratch the ground after relieving themselves, they’re also depositing their distinct smell to mark the territory. This behavior is another way dogs leave their scent signature in their environment.

Social Cues and Group Dynamics

Dogs use a variety of social cues to interact within their groups. These behaviors are essential for maintaining harmony and establishing social hierarchies.

 Play Behavior:

Enthusiasm and Signals: When it comes to play, expect to see a lot of enthusiasm and a range of signals. One such signal is the play bow, which is an invitation to engage in playfulness. This pose—front legs extended, rear end up—signals to other dogs that any following behavior is meant in good fun and not aggression. During play, dogs learn and practice communication strategies like taking turns and understanding signals for relaxation or distress.

Learning Through Play: Play behavior is not just about fun; it’s also educational. Puppies, in particular, learn critical social skills and boundaries through play. They experiment with different behaviors and receive feedback from their playmates, which helps them understand social cues and develop appropriate responses.

Dominance and Submission:

Stable Relationships: Dominance and submission are not about intimidation but about communication that fosters stable relationships. A dominant dog carries itself confidently and may expect priority access to resources like food or favorite resting spots. In contrast, submission helps dogs avoid conflict through body language that includes lowering the body, avoiding eye contact, and laying on the back to expose the belly.

Clear Signals: These signals help clarify social ranking within the group and can be a form of appeasement. For example, a submissive dog might lick the mouth of a more dominant dog, signaling respect and acknowledgment of the social hierarchy.

Conflict Resolution:

Calming Signals: When tensions rise, dogs have ways to resolve conflict without resorting to fights. Calming signals, such as lip licking, yawning, or turning the head away, help to defuse aggression and show peaceful intentions. These cues communicate a wish to maintain social harmony and indicate that a dog does not want to fight.

Submission as Prevention: Displaying submission can also be a way to prevent or end a disagreement, allowing both dogs to move on without physical confrontation. Understanding these signals can help dog owners intervene appropriately and foster a peaceful environment.

Observation and Learning

Dogs learn a lot from watching and imitating others. This observational learning is crucial for their social development and helps them navigate their environment.

A senior dog rests while a playful puppy nuzzles close

Mimicking Behaviors:

Learning Through Observation: When puppies play, they’re not just having fun. They’re watching each other and older dogs to learn important skills. For example, when an older dog wags its tail and play bows, the younger one often copies this action. This observational learning helps puppies understand social cues and appropriate behaviors.

Important Skills: Through mimicry, puppies learn play behavior, such as chasing, pouncing, and play fighting. They also pick up communication cues like tail wags, barks, and growls, which are all part of the canine conversation.

Social Learning from Elders:

Learning Boundaries: Dogs are very much like you in the way they learn from others around them. They pay close attention to the behavior and reactions of older dogs, gaining valuable knowledge about the dos and don’ts of doggy etiquette. For instance, by observing older dogs, puppies learn about personal space and respecting limits.

Understanding Authority: Recognizing and respecting the pack’s hierarchy is another important lesson learned through observation. By sticking close to their elders, young dogs learn how to navigate their social world, making sure they fit right into the pack.

Role of Pheromones in Canine Interaction

Pheromones are like invisible messages that dogs send to each other, affecting their behavior in many ways. These chemical signals play a crucial role in canine communication.

Pheromone Release Mechanisms:

Scent Glands: When your dog meets another dog, there’s a lot you can’t see happening. Dogs have special glands in various parts of their body, like the face, rear, and feet, that release pheromones. These scent cues can stick to surfaces or float in the air, letting dogs pick up on them even without direct contact. Just like how you know someone baked cookies when you step into a room long after they’re done, dogs can tell a lot about each other through these lingering scents.

Detection and Response: Dogs have an extraordinary sense of smell, allowing them to detect these pheromones and respond accordingly. This ability helps them understand the emotional state, health, and reproductive status of other dogs.

Influences on Behavior:

Behavioral Changes: These invisible pheromones are super important because they can change the way dogs act. For example, if a dog smells the pheromone of another dog, they might become more playful or cautious, depending on the message. These scent messages can tell a dog about the emotional state and mood of the other dogs around them.

Social Bonds: Pheromones play a critical role in forming and maintaining social bonds among dogs. They help dogs recognize each other, establish territories, and communicate readiness for mating.

Final Thoughts

Understanding how dogs communicate enriches your relationship with them. Pay close attention to their body language, vocalizations, and scent markings. Encourage positive interactions and intervene if you sense tension. With practice, you’ll become fluent in “dog speak,” creating a supportive environment for your dog to thrive.

Building a strong bond with your dog requires more than just providing food and shelter. By learning to interpret their communication signals, you can respond to their needs more effectively and foster a deeper, more trusting relationship. Whether it’s recognizing a play bow or understanding the significance of a specific bark, your efforts to understand your dog will pay off in a happier, healthier pet.

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Nick is one of the founders at Pawsafe, a company that specializes in providing high-quality products for dogs. He has a passion for improving the lives of pets and their families by creating safe and innovative products that make life easier for pets and their owners. Aside from being an entrepreneur, Nick is a dog lover and a proud owner of a handsome doggo named Taco. Taco is not only Nick's companion but also his inspiration in building Pawsafe.

Nick is one of the founders at Pawsafe, a company that specializes in providing high-quality products for dogs. He has a passion for improving the lives of pets and their families by creating safe and innovative products that make life easier for pets and their owners. Aside from being an entrepreneur, Nick is a dog lover and a proud owner of a handsome doggo named Taco. Taco is not only Nick's companion but also his inspiration in building Pawsafe.